8 Atlante Italo-Svizzero (AIS), 2, 83, , –, n. 48 Atlante Sintattico Italia (ASIt) 1–2, , n. 49 Atlante Sintattico Italia Settentrionale (ASIS), 1–3, . [It. translation: “Ais – Atlante Linguistico ed Etnografico dell’Italia e della Svizzera Meridionale. Vol. 1: Fondamenti Critici e Introduzione. Vol. 2: Scelta di Carte. Introducción a los problemas y métodos según los principios de la Escuela Dialectométrica de Salzburgo (con ejemplos sacados del “Atlante Italo-Svizzero”, AIS).
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Moreover, the atlas turns out to be an inexhaustible mine of ethnographic information. The AIS was conceived by the Swiss linguists Karl Jaberg and Jakob Jud, and published in eight volumes between and with an introductory book and followed only in by an index rather difficult to be found today. On the field, the data collection was carried out, between andin places of southern Switzerland, and north and central Italy, by Paul Scheuermeier, in 81 places of southern Italy by Gerhard Rohlfs, and in 20 Sardinian places by Max Leopold Wagner.
In the following years Scheuermeier did continue the work in north Italy in different stages untilto svizxero the AIS ethnographic aspects . The digital atlas is provided with a search and navigation software, indispensable to explore in a quick and comfortable way the maps contained in the atlas Fig. The software was planned as a stand alone application, but also as a preliminary tool for an ISTC current project, aiming to acquire all the about 1 M dialectal words in the atlas.
On the right a magnified detail see the digital version on Fig. There are atlxnte good reasons to want a digital acquisition of AIS.
First of all, the obvious necessity to exploit adequately the enormous quantity of information contained in the atlas. Indeed, for the normal time and space publication limits, it could list only some prototypical dialectal forms, but not all the words present in the AIS.
Moreover the AIS maps suffer from a lack of itallo, because the words are only indexed with an identifier number without any place name.
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The retrieval of a single lemma in 8 volumes and pages could require an eternity in svizaero with a digital search engine. On the other hand the digital acquisition of the atlas is not so easy, for the page dimensions of the AIS volumes are quite large, 44×58 cm, i.
Only just some years ago, it was not possible to find devices able to scan documents of A1 or A2 size with the required resolution, and it was also not so easy to transfer the data in a quick and suitable way. So, it was necessary for the author to spend some weeks in the search for a possible solution, asking, without results, publishers, pressmen and photographs.
By a lucky chance, a friend told the author that the Padua municipal archives had at disposal a Zeutschel OS colour scanner, which could work at dpi, supported the A1 format ittalo provided a book cradle Fig.
This kind of scanner can acquire a double A2 page, placing xtlante book on 2 balanced plates which give the pages an uniform compression against the scan glass surface. At dpi resolution, the time for acquiring, running a mask contrast filter, and storing the data, was about 4 m. The total time spent was about hours, which were divided into 20 working days.
The entire elaboration was divided in 5 steps, so that we could process the entire AIS in one shot or as single separate stages: The first step in the elaboration process must try to correct the page rotation inevitable in the scanning process. This is important for the map visualization, but more essential for the following text recognition task.
To achieve this job in an optimal way, the program exploit the orange borders present in all the AIS pages except the prefaces Fig. First of all, we must separate, on the orange colour basis, the background and rectangle frame from the text. Then we extract the image edges using the Roberts method of approximation to the derivative.
The edges are defined at the points where the gradient of input matrix is maximum. Then, the atpante angles of the frame sides ahlante be computed with a Radon transform, which has the remarkable capacity to extract lines and curves from very noisy images. The Radon transform works projecting i.
NavigAIS – In the main window we can see the dialectal lemmas blackthe identification numbers of AIS points redthe regional border lines red. The names of the investigation places are overwritten in blue. On the left top box, the Overview window which allows to move in the whole map. The top toolbar shows the zoom and print buttons, and the buttons to move from a point to another. On the right, the word and point search window. We need then to prepare the map for the next step, adjusting the image contrast.
In this case the intensity values of the rotated image are weighted to lower values to produce darker colours. The procedure automatically cut out the image to reduce the size to the minimum possible, with the sufficient intelligence to avoid the inclusion of a part of the contiguous page.
Moreover all the maps are aligned in the same way, so that, in a future version of the navigator, we can use one unique background for all the different maps.
In this stage the orange background is isolated and then subtracted to the whole image. We run a median filter on the resulting image, i. The advantage of a median filter is that it is more effective than ahlante algorithms for ex.
We repeat the same process on the output image, to obtain the final foreground component. The two definitive matrices, containing the image text and the background, are logical masks made only of 0 and 1. So, it was necessary to write a compression routine that svizezro force the memorization of this kind of data in only one bit.
With this expedient, the entire AIS shrinks to 2. Itaoo is composed of 3 windows Fig. The main window does display the AIS maps at the desired magnification ratio.
The dialectal words are black colored on a white background, while the identification number of AIS points and the regional borders are in red. The names of the investigation places are, optionally, overwritten in blue. To move in the AIS map, we provide an overview window, which is a miniature of the entire map left box of Fig.
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On top of both these windows, there is a toolbar with some pushbutton. The third window offers some search facilities on Italian index words and on the place names right box of Fig. It is possible to select the desired list of points to explore them sequentially.
This functionality was created for the next OCR step, which requires to correctly identify each lemma. The criteria used in the software programming allow to display a map in less than 3 s on a Intel Core Duo 2. As told before, we plan to acquire the entire AIS. If we consider only the simple? Kraus Reprint, Nendeln, Liechtenstein, Kraus Reprint, New York].
Fondamenti Critici e Introduzione. Zeutschel OS colour scanner. Foreground and background components saving 3. Left side detail of an AIS captured frame.