Title: Microprocesador (6) INTEL, Author: Celestino Benitez, Name: Microprocesador (6) INTEL, Length: 33 pages, Page: 23, Published: MVI A, 0DH OUT FEH When OUT FEH instruction is executed by the , FEH = 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 is sent out on both AD and A during Tl of IOW machine. GNUSim es un simulador gráfico, ensamblador y depurador para el microprocesador Intel en GNU/Linux y Windows. Está entre los 20 ganadores de.
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The Intel “eighty-eighty” was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April A faster variant A-1 became available later with clock frequency limit up to 3. Although earlier microprocessors were used for calculatorscash registerscomputer terminalsindustrial robots and other applications, the became one of the first really widespread microprocessors.
Several factors contributed to its popularity: The was successful enough that compatibility at the assembly language level became a design requirement for the when design for it was started in This also means that the directly 0885 the ubiquitous bit and bit x86 architectures of today.
The Intel is the successor to the It uses the same basic instruction set and register model as the developed by Computer Terminal Corporationeven though it is not source-code compatible nor binary-compatible with its predecessor. Every instruction in the has an equivalent instruction in the even though the actual opcodes differ between the two CPUs.
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The also adds a few bit operations in its instruction set as well. Whereas the required the use of the HL register pair to indirectly access its bit memory space, the added addressing modes to allow direct access to its full bit memory microprocsador.
In addition, the internal 7-level push-down call stack of the was replaced by a dedicated bit stack-pointer SP register. The processor has seven 8-bit registers A, B, C, D, E, H, and Lmiicroprocesador A is the primary 8-bit accumulator, and the other six registers can be used as either individual 8-bit registers or as three bit register pairs BC, DE, and HL, referred to as B, D and H in Intel documents depending on the particular instruction.
Some instructions also enable the HL register pair to be used as a limited bit accumulator, and a pseudo-register M can be used almost anywhere that any other register can be used, referring to the memory address pointed to by the HL pair. It also has a bit stack pointer to memory replacing the ‘s internal stackand a bit program counter. The processor maintains internal flag bits a status registerwhich indicate the results of arithmetic and logical instructions.
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The carry bit can be set or complemented by specific instructions. Conditional-branch instructions test the various flag status bits. The flags can be copied as a group to the accumulator. The A accumulator and the flags together are called the PSW register, or program status word.
As with many other 8-bit mcroprocesador, all instructions are encoded in a single byte including register numbers, but excluding immediate datafor simplicity. Some of them are followed by one or two bytes of data, which can be an immediate operand, a memory address, or a port number.
Like larger processors, it has automatic CALL and RET instructions for multi-level procedure calls and returns which can even be conditionally executed, like jumps and instructions to save and restore any bit register pair on the machine stack. There are also eight one-byte call instructions RST for subroutines located at the fixed addresses 00h, 08h, 10h, These were intended to be supplied by external hardware in order to invoke a corresponding interrupt service routinebut were also often employed as fast system calls.
The most sophisticated command is XTHLwhich is used for exchanging the register pair HL with the value stored at the address indicated by the stack pointer. Most 8-bit operations can microprocwsador be performed on the 8-bit accumulator the A register. For 8-bit operations with two operands, the other operand can be either an immediate value, another 8-bit register, or microprovesador memory byte addressed by the bit register pair HL.
Micriprocesador copying is microporcesador between any two 8-bit registers and between any 8-bit register and an HL-addressed memory byte. Due to the regular encoding of the MOV instruction using a quarter of available opcode spacethere are redundant codes to copy a register into itself MOV B,Bfor instancewhich were of little use, except for delays.
However, what would have been a copy from the HL-addressed cell into itself i. Although the is generally an 8-bit processor, it also has limited abilities to perform bit operations: By adding HL to itself, it is possible to achieve the same result as a bit arithmetical left shift with one instruction. IN 05h would put the address h on the bit address bus.
One of the bits in microprocesadod processor state word see below indicates that the processor is accessing data from the stack. Using this signal, it is possible to implement a separate stack memory space. However, this feature was seldom used. For mkcroprocesador advanced systems, micrlprocesador one phase of its working microrocesador, the processor set its “internal state byte” on the data bus.
The interrupt system state enabled or disabled is microprocesaror output on a separate pin. For simple systems, where the interrupts are not used, it is possible to find cases where microproceaador pin is used as an additional single-bit output port the popular Microprocesadro computer made in the Soviet Unionfor instance.
The data block is copied one byte at a time, and mixroprocesador data movement and looping logic utilizes bit operations. The address bus has its own 16 pins, and the data bus has 8 pins that are usable without any multiplexing. Using the two additional pins read and write signalsit is possible to assemble simple microprocessor devices very easily.
Only the separate IO space, interrupts and DMA require additional chips to decode the processor pin signals. However, the processor load capacity is limited, and even simple computers frequently contained bus amplifiers. The processor consumes about 1. The integrated circuit uses non-saturated enhancement-load nMOS gates, demanding extra voltages for the load-gate bias.
A single layer of metal is used to interconnect the approximately 6, transistors  in the design, but the higher resistance polysilicon layer, which required higher voltage for some interconnects, is implemented with transistor gates. An early industrial use of the is as the “brain” of the DatagraphiX Auto-COM Computer Output Microfiche line of products which takes large amounts of user data from reel-to-reel tape and images it onto microfiche.
In addition, several early arcade video games were built around the microproceswdor, including Space Invadersone of the most popular arcade games ever microprocedador. Shortly after the launch of thethe Motorola competing design was introduced, and after that, the MOS Technology derivative of the Zilog introduced the Z80which has a compatible machine-language instruction set and initially used the same assembly language as thebut for legal reasons, Zilog developed a syntactically-different but code compatible alternative assembly language for the Z At Intel, the was followed by the compatible and electrically more elegant This is also supported by NEC’s V30 a similarly enhanced clone.
Thus, thevia its ISAmade a lasting impact on computer history. A number of processors compatible with the Intel A were manufactured in the Eastern Bloc: As ofthe is still in production at Lansdale Semiconductors. Tesla Czechoslovak company MHB The also changed how computers were created.
When the was introduced, computer systems were usually created by computer manufacturers such as Digital Equipment CorporationHewlett Packardor IBM. A manufacturer would produce the entire computer, including processor, microprocesacor, and system software such as compilers microprocesaror operating system.
The microprocesdor actually designed for just about any application except a complete computer system. Hewlett Packard developed the HP series of smart terminals around the The and gave rise to thewhich was designed as microprofesador source compatible although not binary compatible extension of the This design, in turn, later spawned the x86 family of chips, the basis for most CPUs in use today.
Many of the ‘s core machine instructions and concepts, for example, registers named ABC and Das well as many of the flags used to control conditional jumps, are still in use in the widespread x86 platform.
PCs based upon the design and its successors evolved into workstations and servers of 16, 32 and 64 bits, with advanced memory protection, segmentation, and multiprocessing features, blurring the difference between small and large computers [ original research?
microprocesaror The size of chips has grown so that the size and microprocessador of large x86 chips is not much different from high end architecture chips [ original research? Federico Fagginthe originator of the architecture in earlyproposed it to Intel’s management and pushed for its implementation. He finally got the permission to develop it six months later. Faggin hired Masatoshi Shima from Japan, who did the detailed design under his direction, using the design methodology for random logic with silicon gate that Faggin had created for the family.
Stanley Mazor contributed a couple of instructions to the instruction set. This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November and incorporated under the “relicensing” terms of the GFDLversion 1.
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